This book is concerned with civil society organisations (CSOs) and the challenges of facilitating sustainable societal transformation in Africa, focusing on the case of Ethiopia. The book underlines the fact that some western scholars argue that the Enlightenment period in Europe provided the bedrock for the foundation of ‘modern’ CSOs. As a result, they believed that the life patterns and ‘traditional’ social organizing practices of Africans, Asians and other societies of the world are incompatible with the ‘civilized’ world. This outlook constitutes the mainstream view that has played an uncontested role in the decades of development in Africa. Proponents of African and ‘traditional’ perspectives of civil society argue that many nations in Africa have centuries-old humanism and a history of volunteerism and civic institutions, which form the backbone of their social fabric, which are fundamental to generating and developing healthy human societies and effectively functioning CSOs on the continent. The book calls for a re-examination of the meanings and practices of CSOs and the re-exploration of the role of ‘traditional’ CSOs in facilitating societal transformation in Africa.